Ancient City Of Kyzikos
Location Of The City
Kyzikos ruins Bandırma-Erdek Road 10. it is located at Km. The city was established at the junction of the Kapıdağ Peninsula with the Anatolian Coast. It is one of the most important city centers of antiquity. In Herodotus ‘ works, it passes along with Artake and Proconnesos as the third city state established in the region. The urban state of Kyzikos was partly established in the Old years on the green foothills of a high mountain called Arkton Oros. One arm embraces the blue sea of Bandırma Bay with its ancient name Panormos; the other arm embraces the illuminated waters of the Gulf of Artake (Erdek) from the West.
It is known that the oldest communities settled in the region of Erdek are Dolions, whose name is Mysia in ancient times, scattered on the southern foothills of Kapıdağ Peninsula. The geographer Strabon described in his works that the Dolions migrated from the Thessalia region of Greece. In his work, Strabon describes the city of Kyzikos as follows: “Kyzikos is an island in Propontis (Sea of Marmara) and is connected to the mainland by two bridges. Its territory is fertile. Near the bridges is a city with two ports of the same name that can be closed if necessary and a shelter large enough to take more than two hundred ships. Part of the city is on the plain and the other part is near the mountain called Arkton Oros. Behind this mountain is another mountain called Dindymos. Rising as a single peak, this mountain contains the temple of Dindymene, the “mother of the Gods”, built by the Argonauts. The city competes with the most prominent cities in Asia with its size, beauty, and excellence of both peace and wartime rule, and is organized in the style of Rhodes, Massalia and ancient Karthago. There are three directors engaged in the management of three publicly owned structures. These structures included treasure, weapons, and war machines, and grain. During the Roman period, the city was able to maintain its internal independence.”
King Kyzikos and his wife Kleite
In mythology, Kyzikos, the young king of the Dolions named in the famous Argonauts saga of the Greeks, is said to be a hero from Thessaly. Kyzikos originally passes as southern Greek. He was the son of aineus, son of stilbe, and ainete, daughter of King Eusoros of Thrace. Eusoros ‘ son was Akamas, who commanded the Thracian contingent that fought against the Greeks at the behest of the Troians. Kyzikos was the ruler of the Dolionis, whose soyca roots were based on Poseidon. At the time of the Argonauts ‘ arrival into legend, the seer had just married Kleite, the daughter of Merops.
History Of The City
The city and its locality, named after Kyzikos, were colonized by Miletosians twice in 749 and 680 BC. This second colonization of Kyzikos, along with the Old City of Artake, located on the site of today’s City of Erdek, covers the reigning years of King Gyges, which opened the most glorious period of the Lydian state.
The city of Kyzikos marked a very bright period in the field of architecture and art, especially in the Hellenistic period in 334 – 330 BC and again in the Roman period. The palaces, Palace decorations, temples to the gods of the period, tomb decorations, column heads, bridges and aqueducts are dazzling, as are the Kyzikos sculptors who mastered the marbles extracted from proconnesos. The Temple of Hadrianus in Kyzikos, which is named as the eighth wonder of the world, was realized by architects of Kyzikos on behalf of Emperor Hadrianus.
The city of Kyzikos is an important settlement that also sheds light on history in the fields of Science and culture. He was brought up in famous thinkers, mathematicians, astronomy scholars, famous historians and literati, as well as the famous geographer and marine scientist explorer Eudeksos* Kyzikos of the period.
The Kyzikos region changed hands and came under other dominions, starting from ancient times to the Ottomans. These are Dollion, Thrak, Macedonian, Lydia, Persian, Sparta, Peloponnesos, Phyrig, Roman and Byzantine civilizations. Especially under Roman rule the city was an important Center in many fields. But after the Roman split into two, the city, which remained under Eastern Roman rule, gradually began to lose its importance. As a result of the attacks and earthquakes by the Arabs who wanted to take the capital Constantinople, the city was badly damaged. Finally in 1339, Orhan Ghazi’s son Süleyman Pasha captured the area in the first Rumeli expedition.
* Eudoksos: II BC. he was a century-old sailor and explorer from Kyzikos. He is considered the first person to set out from the Mediterranean and try to circumnavigate Africa. Ptolemaios VIII. He was tasked by Euergetes with finding the sea route to India. On her second attempt, on her way from Gades, her ship ran aground off Morocco. After managing to float his ship, he continued on his way down the west coast of Africa but did not return. Later XV. by the end of the century no one had tried to get down from the southern end of Africa.
One of the first countries where the Argonauts set out from Greece to receive the Golden Fleece, which existed in Kolkhis (Georgia), was King Kyzikos ‘ country. Kyzikos had welcomed the sailors with a smile. He organized feasts for them and offered them rations. But when night came, the Argonauts were thrown back to shore, where they were unwittingly separated by a storm when they sailed. The dolionis thought they were being raided by pirates and began a collision with the Argonauts. Kyzikos came to his side and was killed by Iason, the leader of the Argonauts. The next morning, everyone realized the mistake he was making. The Argonauts burned lament over the King’s body for three days. They then held a large funeral where Greek-style Athletics games were held. Upon his death, King Kyzikos ‘ young wife Kleite hanged herself for her pain and ended her life. The city where Kyzikos reigned now came to be called by his name.
Excavations at yzikos
Since 2006, he has served as the head of the excavation of Kyzikos in the Archaeology Department of Erzurum Atatürk University. Dr. Nurettin Koçhan conducts. Excavations have revealed that the city was surrounded by fortification walls and these walls were strengthened especially during the Roman period. To the north of the city settlement was the Acropolis, the highest place in the city. To the south of the city was an agora; again to the south was Metron, a sanctuary. Bouleterion, one of the administrative structures of the city, was also located to the southeast of the city settlement. The Necropolis, the burial site, was located to the south and more densely to the west of the city. A large amphitheater had been built outside the city’s fortification walls. The bearing feet of this structure have been destroyed and have survived to the present day.
Temple Of Hadrianus
Kyzikos Hadrianus Temple MS I. it was built in the name of Jupiter (Zeus) in the century, but its construction continued for a long time. An earthquake in the city in 117 AD caused the destruction of the temple, which is still under construction, among other structures. The construction was resumed with the financial assistance of the Roman Emperor Hadrianus, who came to Kyzikos during his trip to Anatolia in 124 ad. Due to its financial support, it can also be said that the temple was dedicated to Emperor Hadrianus. Thus, Kyzikos became one of the cities in Anatolia that built an emperor temple after Smyrna, Pergamon and Ephesos. MS. 4. in the century, Socrates used the Statue of Hadrianus, located in the temple Sella, in the 13th century of Olympos. he commemorates him as his God. Thus Hadrianus was succeeded by the Kyzikosians on the 13th. He became known as the God of Olympos, and Kyzikos was honored with the title of a neokoria (the city that built a temple in the name of the Emperor).
About the opening of the temple in 167 AD, the philosopher Aristides in his speech at the Agora, located just north of the Temple, said, “the sailors had previously looked at the shapes of the mountains and separated the islands. Now your temple has replaced the mountains. Your city is the only city that guides the sailors without the need for lanterns and sign flags,” he said, stressing the glory of the temple. Aristeides also states that the inscription on the pediment of the temple indicates that the structure was dedicated to Hadrianus.
First information of the Temple, AD 2. we get it from the century-old Scolast Lucianus. The Temple of Hadrianus, which was thought to have been built under the supervision of the architect Aristeinatos with 8×16 columns, with a dipteros plan (the part used as the sanctuary of the temple, formed by covering the Naos around with columns, a type of plan from Greek architecture), was built on seven vaults in the Corinthian order, extending east-west, but today only three of the vaults The Roman historian Cassius Dio wrote about the Temple of Hadrianus, which was greatly damaged in the second earthquake in 155 AD, “the fairest of the existing structures”
and its largest temple has been demolished, ” he says. The damaged temple was repaired and reused in 167 ad. After the release of Christianity and the Prohibition of the pagan faith, the temple was abandoned to its fate. After that, the destruction of the temple has started. Besides the natural destruction, there are also the destruction of mankind since the Middle Ages. The city, which has faced a wide variety of earthquakes throughout its history, dates back to 6 ad. in the middle of the century, Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, lost its importance as a result of its political and commercial prominence.
An important feature of the Temple of Hadrianus is its dimensions. The temple has an east-west length of 116.23 meters and is one of the largest Anatolian temples of the Roman period with these dimensions. It is also the building with the largest size column head of the Roman period to date. This Corinthian head decorated with Akhantus (artichoke) leaves is 1.90 meters in diameter and 2.50 meters in size.